Tumors in Children

Cancer of the bone is very rare. Typically, just 8 out of 1 million people suffer from this type of cancer. There are a variety of cancers (tumors) which are associated with bone. Patients with bone tumors are typically younger.

The most common bone tumors are Osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma. These two types of tumor account for over 90% of those in patients under the age of 20. (osteosarcoma 51% and Ewing’s sarcoma 41%). (“Bone tumors in European children and adolescents”, 1978-1997. Report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Stiller CA, Bielack SS, Jundt G, Steliarova-Foucher E. Eur J Cancer. 2006 Sep;42(13):2124-35.)

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma (also known as osteogenic sarcoma) is the most common bone tumor and the sixth most common form of cancer of children.

It typically occurs in the long bones, the thigh bone (femur) near the knee, the shin bone (tibia) near the knee and the upper arm bone (humerus) near the shoulder. It does also occur in other bones including the pelvis, the spine, the shoulder blade (scapula) and ribs. Osteosarcoma are twice as common in boys as in girls. The most common age for boys is 15. For girls, it is a little younger as their bones mature a little earlier. The cause of Osteosarcoma is not known although it is associated with rapidly growing bones. There is one gene which has been linked to an increased risk of Osteosarcoma; there have also been a number of cases in which there appears to be a family tendency.

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor and will speed to other parts of the body if left untreated. The tumors that spread are known as metastases or secondary cancers / tumors. Osteosarcoma is treated with anti-cancer cell drugs known as chemotherapy. Most patients will also require surgery to remove the cancerous bone.

The most common surgery is known as limb preservation or limb sparing surgery, in which the cancerous bone is cut away and replaced with a metal implant. Bones grow in length from a plate-like zone of special cells located at both ends of the long bones. Osteosarcomas are commonly associated with these zones known as growth plates. The surgery required involves the removal of a long segment of bone and a growth plate before the extending implants are fitted to lengthen the limb. In some cases, the whole bone with both growth plates will need to be removed.

To know more about Osteosarcoma, there are a number of excellent websites which you could take a look at:
http://www.bcrt.org.uk/bci_what_is_osteosarcoma.php
http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/cancer/cancer_osteosarcoma.html

Ewing’s Sarcoma

Ewing’s Sarcoma is a malignant cancer (tumor) that can develop anywhere in the body but most commonly affects the legs, arm and pelvis. Ewing’s sarcoma predominantly affects children and teenagers and is very rarely found in adults. The exact cause of Ewing’s Sarcoma remains unknown. There does not appear to be any hereditary links and there are no known preventative measures.

The typical course of treatment is chemotherapy. Radiation therapy may also be used to kill cancer cells. Similarly to those patients with Osteosarcoma, those with Ewing’s will require surgery to remove the cancerous bone and tissues, into which the cancer may have grown.

To know more about Ewing’s Sarcoma, there are a number of excellent websites which you could take a look at:
http://www.bcrt.org.uk/bci_what_is_ewings_sarcoma.php
http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Cancertypes/Bone/Typesofbonecancer/Ewingssarcoma.aspx

There are also some excellent websites where you can read stories by both children and teenagers who have described their experiences. Please do so by clicking on the following links:
http://www.bcrt.org.uk/mbcs_stories_of_hope_for_the_future.php



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Tumors in Children

Cancer of the bone is very rare. Typically, just 8 out of 1 million people suffer from this type of cancer. There are a variety of cancers (tumors) which are associated with bone. Patients with bone tumors are typically younger.

The most common bone tumors are Osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma. These two types of tumor account for over 90% of those in patients under the age of 20. (osteosarcoma 51% and Ewing’s sarcoma 41%). (“Bone tumors in European children and adolescents”, 1978-1997. Report from the Automated Childhood Cancer Information System project. Stiller CA, Bielack SS, Jundt G, Steliarova-Foucher E. Eur J Cancer. 2006 Sep;42(13):2124-35.)

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma (also known as osteogenic sarcoma) is the most common bone tumor and the sixth most common form of cancer of children.

It typically occurs in the long bones, the thigh bone (femur) near the knee, the shin bone (tibia) near the knee and the upper arm bone (humerus) near the shoulder. It does also occur in other bones including the pelvis, the spine, the shoulder blade (scapula) and ribs. Osteosarcoma are twice as common in boys as in girls. The most common age for boys is 15. For girls, it is a little younger as their bones mature a little earlier. The cause of Osteosarcoma is not known although it is associated with rapidly growing bones. There is one gene which has been linked to an increased risk of Osteosarcoma; there have also been a number of cases in which there appears to be a family tendency.

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor and will speed to other parts of the body if left untreated. The tumors that spread are known as metastases or secondary cancers / tumors. Osteosarcoma is treated with anti-cancer cell drugs known as chemotherapy. Most patients will also require surgery to remove the cancerous bone.

The most common surgery is known as limb preservation or limb sparing surgery, in which the cancerous bone is cut away and replaced with a metal implant. Bones grow in length from a plate-like zone of special cells located at both ends of the long bones. Osteosarcomas are commonly associated with these zones known as growth plates. The surgery required involves the removal of a long segment of bone and a growth plate before the extending implants are fitted to lengthen the limb. In some cases, the whole bone with both growth plates will need to be removed.

To know more about Osteosarcoma, there are a number of excellent websites which you could take a look at:
http://www.bcrt.org.uk/bci_what_is_osteosarcoma.php
http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/cancer/cancer_osteosarcoma.html

Ewing’s Sarcoma

Ewing’s Sarcoma is a malignant cancer (tumor) that can develop anywhere in the body but most commonly affects the legs, arm and pelvis. Ewing’s sarcoma predominantly affects children and teenagers and is very rarely found in adults. The exact cause of Ewing’s Sarcoma remains unknown. There does not appear to be any hereditary links and there are no known preventative measures.

The typical course of treatment is chemotherapy. Radiation therapy may also be used to kill cancer cells. Similarly to those patients with Osteosarcoma, those with Ewing’s will require surgery to remove the cancerous bone and tissues, into which the cancer may have grown.

To know more about Ewing’s Sarcoma, there are a number of excellent websites which you could take a look at:
http://www.bcrt.org.uk/bci_what_is_ewings_sarcoma.php
http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Cancerinformation/Cancertypes/Bone/Typesofbonecancer/Ewingssarcoma.aspx

There are also some excellent websites where you can read stories by both children and teenagers who have described their experiences. Please do so by clicking on the following links:
http://www.bcrt.org.uk/mbcs_stories_of_hope_for_the_future.php



Watch our real life stories about the JTS implant

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